On 5 November 2009, the Security Council adopted a Presidential Statement (S/PRST/2009/29) reiterating the " importance of consolidating democracy, security, the rule of law, national reconciliation and the fight against impuntiy to ensure sustainable peace in Guinea-Bissau”. The Council also urged the Government of Guinea-Bissau “to take the necessary actions in the framework of the Guinea-Bissau anti-narcotics operational Plan and the ECOWAS Plan of action against drug trafficking and organised crime in West Africa”.
On 5 March 2010, the Security Council met to discuss the situation in Guinea-Bissau. It praised the efforts of the Government of Guinea-Bissau but reiterated the importance of respect for constitutional order and the rule of law. The Council expressed its support to the work of the United Nations Integrated Peacebuilding Office in Guinea-Bissau (UNIOGBIS). It also reaffirmed the importance of a security-sector reform in the country.
On 22 July 2010, the Security Council adopted a Presidential Declaration in which it "expresses serious concern about the continued growth in drug trafficking, as well as organized crime, which threatens peace and security in Guinea-Bissau and in the subregion." It "calls upon the government of Guinea-Bissau to release immediately all those detained in the events of 1 April 2010 or prosecute them with full respect for due process."
Following the events on 1 April 2010 in Guinea-Bissau, the Security Council met on 5 April 2010 to express its concerns and to ask all parties to respect the rule of law. The Security Council also called on parties to promote dialogue and to maintain their efforts to consolidate peace and security in the country.
On 23 November 2010, the Security Council adopted Resolution 1949(2010) renewing the UNIOGBIS mandate until 31 December 2011.
On 28 June 2011, following the report of the Secretary-General on developments in Guinea-Bissau and on the activities of the United Nations Integrated Peacebuilding Office in that country (17 June 2011), the Special Representative of the Secretary General, Mr. Joseph Mutatoba, presented to the Security Council recent improvements in the political and security environment in Guinea-Bissau. Regarding the political dialogue and Security Sector Reform, Mr. Mutatoba stressed the need for consolidation of the positive results and called for improved relations between civil authorities and members of military institutions. In a press statement (28 June 2011), members of the Security Council welcomed "the progress made by the Government of Guinea-Bissau towards the maintenance of stability and the important steps taken in achieving economic reform". They also noted "the work of the National Assembly in taking forward national political dialogue among all parties as a way of enhancing efforts to promote national reconciliation."
On 3 November 2011, the Security Council heard the report of Mr. Mutaboba, Special Representative of Secretary-General in Guinea-Bissau, on the lastest developments in the country, as well as the permanent representatives of Guinea Bissau, Brazil, who chairs the sanction mechanim comittee for Guinea-Bissau, and Angola, on behalf of the Community of Portuguese Language countries (CPLP).
During the following closed consultations, Mr. Mutaboba highlighted the need for the implementation of a credible Security Sector Reform program, key to the normalization of the political life and the socio-economic development.
On 21 December 2011, the Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 2030 extending the UNIOGBIS mandate until 28 February 2013.
On 28 March 2012, the Security Council heard a report by Mr. Joseph Mutaboba, Special representative of the Secretary General in Guinea Bissau, on the situation in the country, followed by statements by Ms. Maria Luiza Ribeiro Viotti, Chair of the Guinea-Bissau Configuration of the Peacebuilding Commission and Mr. João Soares da Gama, Permanent representative of the country.
Mr. Mutaboba noted that the first round of the early presidential elections of 18 March, organized following the death of President Malam Bacai Sanha, had been conducted without any major incident and was deemed transparent by the observers on the ground. However, the political transition process was hindered by the fight against drug trafficking, the urgent need for a security sector reform and the shortcomings of the judicial system.
In closed consultations, the French representative commended the successful and transparent electoral process, expressing however his concerns over the security situation following the assassination of a High Commander of the Military Intelligence, Colonel Samba Djalo.
On 30 March 2012, the Security Council issued a press statement calling upon Bissau-Guinean political leaders to exercise restraint and to refrain from any action that might hamper the electoral process.
On 13 April, 2012, following the military coup that occurred the day before in Guinea-Bissau, the Security Council met in consultations to discuss the situation in the country. It issued a press statement in which it strongly condemned the military seizure and demanded the immediate restoration of constitutional order.
On 19 April 2012, the Security Council heard statements from Mr. Joseph Mutaboba Special Representative of Secretary-General in Guinea-Bissau, Mr. Saliu Mamadu Djalo Pires, Foreign Minister of Guinea-Bissau, and Mr. Youssoufou Bamba, Permanent representative of Côte d’Ivoire, speaking on behalf of the Chairman of ECOWAS.
The authors of the coup claimed they had been acting in "self defense" in order to thwart attempts to "annihilate" the armed forces. Their immediate objectives were the continuation of the security sector reform, the fight against drug trafficking, a further democratization of the State and ending impunity. Following the consultations gathering the political parties, an agreement was reached on 18 April between the armed forces and some political leaders for a two-year transition, the dissolution of the Parliament, the deposition of the government, and a continued military leadership. The attempts at protest had been violently suppressed. Mr. Paulo Portas, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Portugal, stood in favor of the implementation of restrictive measures and the creation of a stabilization mission mandated by the United Nations. The same wish was expressed by Mr. Djalo Pires.
In closed consultations, the representative of France condemned the coup and called for a peaceful resumption of the constitutional order. He urged the African Union, ECOWAS and the CPLP to join forces in a single initiative.
On 21 April 2012, the Security Council adopted a presidential statement reiterating its condemnation of the coup, demanding the immediate restoration of the constitutional order and threatening the perpetrators and supporters of the coup of targeted sanctions, should the situation remain unsolved.
On 7 May 2012, the Security Council heard a report by the Special Representative of the Secretary-General in Guinea-Bissau, Mr. Joseph Mutaboba, in the presence of Ms. Hussaini Suleiman Garba, Commissioner for Political Affairs of ECOWAS, the Permanent Representative of Angola on behalf of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP) and the Foreign Minister of Guinea-Bissau, Mr. Saliu Mamadu Djalo Pires
The plan to end the crisis proposed by ECOWAS, which includes a 12-month transition process led by a president elected by the National Assembly as well as a prime minister chosen by consensus, was rejected by the Foreign Minister of Guinea-Bissau. However, he did not oppose the deployment in the country of a joint stabilization force by ECOWAS, the CPLP and the African Union under the Security Council’s mandate.
In closed consultations, the French representative commended the efforts of ECOWAS, which enabled the release of the interim president and the prime minister, while calling for greater cooperation with other stakeholders to initiate a joint and credible process to end the crisis.
On 18 May 2012, the Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 2048 imposing targeted sanctions against the perpetrators of the coup in Guinea-Bissau. It also stresses the importance of mediation to find a solution to the crisis affecting the country and calls for coordination between the international partners.
On 5 June 2012, the Security Council held closed consultations to examine with the Secretariat the progress in the implementation of resolution 2048 calling for the restoration of the democratic process in Guinea Bissau.
The representative of France welcomed the joint action of key actors such as ECOWAS, the CPLP and the African Union with the Bissau Guinean authorities in the process of return to constitutional order. He reiterated that the establishment of structural reforms such as the demobilization of military personnel responsible for the instability and the fight against drug trafficking had to remain central to the ECOWAS mission mandate and insisted on the necessary coordination of all regional organizations concerned.
On 26 July 2012, the Special Representative of the Secretary General in Guinea Bissau presented to the Security Council the report of the SG on this country and the activities of UNIOGBIS. The political situation was still blocked after the coup d’état of April 12, notably because of the division of the partners of Guinea Bissau on the political transition.
During closed consultations, the representative of France recalled that the return to the constitutional order required an effort of dialogue and compromise between the national and international parties, on the basis of resolution 2048. Some positive signals were noted: on the one hand, the PAIGC seemed to accept the principle of political transition; on the other hand, the President of the transition gave some indications on the electoral calendar. However, because the progress were still insufficient, the United Nations had to make some proposal to end the deadlock and should play a role of harmonization between the CEDEAO, the CPLP, the African Union and the Guinea-Bissau stakeholders, and keep working on major issues: the demobilization process as planned in the reform of the security sector, the fight against impunity and the fight against drugs trafficking.
On 18 September 2012, Mr Feltman, Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs, briefed the Security Council on the situation in Guinea-Bissau, in closed consultations.
The representative of France deplored the lack of consensus among national and international stakeholders on how to restore the constitutional order. In this context, the Security Council should continue to call for dialogue between parties and to maintain a firm policy against the putschist.
On 5 February 2013, Mr. Tayé-Brook Zerihoun, Assistant Secretary-General for Political Affairs, presented the report of the Secretary-General on the situation in Guinea-Bissau and UNOGBIS activities to the Security Council. Ten months after the coup d’état, the security situation in the country remained worrying. In particular, torture cases as well as extra-judiciary arrests were reported.
During the following closed consultations, the French representative condemned the violations against human rights and called for an immediate end to the impunity of their perpetrators. The international community had also to remain vigilant so that the electoral process will not be postponed.
On 22 February 2013, the Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 2092 renewing for 3 months the mandate of UNOGBIS.
On 6 March 2013, the Security Council met in closed consultations to hear Mr Tayé-Brook Zerihoun, Assistant Secretary-General for Political Affairs, about Guinea-Bissau. Nothing had changed, the constitutional order in the country was still not restored.
The French Representative welcomed the decision of ECOWAS to ask the authorities of Guinea-Bissau to hold elections before the end of 2013. He also stressed that it was the duty of the Security Council to ensure very carefully the proper conduct of these elections.
On 9 May 2013, the Security Council heard the first briefing of Mr José Ramos-Horta as new Special Representative of the Secretary-General in Guinea-Bissau. Presenting the Secretary-General report on UNOGBIS activities, he recommended a two-phase approach to create peacebuilding conditions in the country. After the restoration of the constitutional order and the convening of general elections, the second step of the transition plan was to strengthen State bodies.
During the following consultations, the representative of France welcomed the exit plan which had to go along with the action of UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) to fight drug trafficking.
On 22 May 2013, the Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 2103, extending for one year UNOGBIS mandate.
5 September 2013. The Security Council met in closed consultations to hear the report of Mr. Ramos Horta, Special Representative and Head of the United Nations Integrated Peacebuilding Office in Guinea-Bissau. Mr. Horta mentioned the progress made by Guinea-Bissau towards the restoration of constitutional order. However he indicated that electoral experts were forecasting that elections would be postponed until February 2014.
During this meeting, France welcomed the establishment of an inclusive government in Guinea-Bissau while recalling that much was to still to be done to re-establish constitutional order and to allow better regional integration of the country. France called for free, fair and transparent elections within a reasonable time. On the economic side, the Representative of France called the World Bank’s delegation visit a “positive step”, as the World Bank assessed that the criteria to re-launch its programs in Guinea-Bissau were now gathered. The Representative of France expressed concerns on the growing food insecurity and recalled the responsibility of the Bissau-Guinean transitional authorities to organize elections and create the necessary conditions for a reform of the country.
On 23 October 2013, Security Council met in closed consultations to hear the report of Mr. Jeffrey Feltman, Assistant Secretary General for Political Affairs. He mentioned the progress made by Guinea-Bissau towards the restoration of constitutional order, referring to the provisional results of the 18 October legislative elections.
During this meeting, the Representative of France welcomed those developments. He welcomed the role of Said Djinnit, Special Representative of the United Nations Secretary General for West Africa.
On 26 November 2013, the Special Representative of the Secretary-General, Mr. José Ramos-Horta, presented to the Security Council the Secretary-General report on the restoration of constitutional order in Guinea-Bissau and on UNOGBIS activities. He expressed concerns about the new postponement of the elections until March 2014 and recalled that the organization of credible elections was a priority for the restoration of constitutional order. In order to ensure a climate of peace and security conducive to their holding, social tensions and a fragile humanitarian situation should be taken into account. In this regard, he deplored human rights violations including intimidation by the security forces. It was necessary to secure the electoral and post-electoral processes. Mr. Ramos-Horta finally indicated that the Office has provided $5 million from the Immediate Response Facility in order to cover urgent needs in pre-electoral period. He also continued its support activities to justice institutions and national authorities in order to combat drug trafficking and transnational organized crime.
During the consultations that followed, the Representative of France expressed concerns about the hardening of the security situation as a result of the security forces. He condemned the attack of the Nigerian embassy in October and the violence that followed. He supported the ECOWAS action and its contribution to the funding of the electoral process. Finally, he recalled that we had to put pressure on the Bissau Guinean authorities so that they fulfill their commitment for a return to constitutional order and recalled the Council’s attention in this regard.
On 9 December 2013, the existing chairs of the subsidiary bodies of the Council presented the results of their work.
The chairman of the sanctions committee 2048 on Guinea Bissau, permanent representative of Morocco, recalled that this committee was one of the few that did not have a panel of experts. It was also the only one to focus entirely on travel bans. The main challenge of this committee was access to information on the situation on the ground.
Following the meeting, the Security Council adopted a presidential statement.
On 26 February, Mr. Ramos Horta, Special Representative of the Secretary-General and head of UNOGBIS, presented to the Security Council, by VTC, the report of the Secretary-General on the return to constitutional order in Guinea. Ambassador Patriota, Chairman of the Peacebuilding Commission gave his strategy for the Peacebuilding Commission reengagement in the country. The Permanent Representatives of Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau and Côte d’Ivoire were also present.
On a political level, Mr. Horta mentioned the internal crisis between the businessman Mr. Camara and Mr. Pereira, now Chairman of the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC), for the party presidency. General elections had been postponed many times in order to ensure they would take place in good technical conditions. The voter registration process had been very successful, with 95% of voters registered. The first round of the presidential and legislative elections would take place on 13 April 2014. Mr. Horta welcomed contributions from ECOWAS, EU, Nigeria and Timor-Leste, which would also finance the next step of the electoral process. Further efforts had to be made to reach consider post-electoral transition. The fight against impunity and the protection of Human Rights had made little progress, a general feeling of insecurity was ongoing and the socio-economic and humanitarian situations had further deteriorated. The international community had a role to play to help the country. Mr. Patriota recalled that the modernization of the defense and security sectors was complex and would require substantial political dialogue, as well as a Government reform as a whole. He announced three medium-term objectives: completion of the democratic cycle with a transfer of authority to elected governments, encourage progress of socio-economic indicators with a humanitarian emphasis, create a coordinated platform for international support to the modernization of the security sector.
During the consultations that followed, the Permanent representative of France urged the Council to maintain pressure for free, transparent and inclusive elections and reaffirmed its support for the work of ECOWAS and for the strengthening of the ECOWAS Mission in Guinea-Bissau, ECOMIB. The establishment of improved command and control within the army would constitute the first priority of the next government. Modernization of the defense and security sectors was of crucial importance. Finally, the climate of impunity showed the need to strengthen the justice sector and to keep perspectives of targeted sanctions.
Following these consultations, a press statement has been adopted by the Council.