On 22 March 2012, in a press statement, the Security Council immediately condemned the military seizure and called for "the immediate restoration of constitutional order and the restoration of the democratically elected government". The UNSC renewed its condemnation in its presidential statement dated 26 March 2012 on the situation in Sahel.
On 9 April 2012, the Security Council adopted a press statement in which it called for an immediate implementation of the framework agreement signed between ECOWAS and the mutineers. The Council stressed its commitment to the preservation of the unity of Mali and rejected any declaration of independence from the rebels. Expressing its concerns over the intensification of the terrorist threat in the North of the country, particularly from AQIM, it condemned the abduction of Algerian diplomats. The Council reiterated its support to the efforts of ECOWAS in its search for concrete options to restore the sovereignty, territorial integrity and unity of Mali.
On 11 May 2012, the Security Council heard in closed consultations Mr. Saïd Djinnit, Special Representative for West Africa, on the situation in the region.The Council had the opportunity to discuss the situation in Mali.
The representative of France commended the appointment of a transitional government. However, judging by the clashes in Bamako, this achievement had to be consolidated. The military, in particular, had to return to the barracks. The government also had to focus on the crisis in the North of the country, as the population faced a precarious humanitarian situation and the threat of terrorist groups. Mediation by ECOWAS to find a solution in the North was still possible, and the representative of France invited the member states to coordinate, especially with the other countries of the region.
On 15 June 2012, the Security Council met with a joint delegation of the African Union and ECOWAS to discuss ways to restore constitutional order as well as national unity and territorial integrity in Mali. In this perspective, the deployment of a regional force was called for.
In his statement, the representative of France expressed his concern over the fragile nature of transitional institutions and reiterated his full support for ECOWAS. Prioritizing a political solution, he also invited the Security Council to pass a resolution in favor of the deployment of the requested force.
On 5 July 2012, the Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 2056, submitted by France, supporting the efforts of ECOWAS and the African Union to resolve the crisis in Mali. The resolution, under Chapter VII of the UN Charter, takes note of the undergoing military planning of the regional organizations to deploy a stabilization force in the country. It further calls upon all States to coordinate their efforts against terrorism groups, namely AQIM, the MUJAO and their supporters, and calls for the adoption of sanctions.
In his remarks to the press, the representative of France called for the international community to do everything possible to fight against terrorism in Mali and the Sahel, which threatens to destabilize the entire region. France also called all countries in the region, North and South of the Sahara, to intensify their cooperation against AQIM.
On 8 August 2012, the Secretary-General, the Commissioner for Peace and Security of ECOWAS and the Representative of the African Union updated the Security Council on the latest political developments in Bamako and the planning efforts currently under way to consider the deployment of an ECOWAS force in Mali.
The situation in North Mali remained a grave concern: violations of human rights had been reported, the humanitarian situation deteriorated and the risk that a safe haven for terrorists would be created in the North constituted a threat to the regional and international security.
At the end of closed consultations, the representative of France reiterated the availability of the Security Council to pursue the dialogue with the ECOWAS on its proposals to deploy a stabilization force in Mali.
On 10 August 2012, following the 8-August consultations, the Security Council issued a press statement on the political transition in Mali.
On 17 September 2012, Mr Feltman, Under-Secretary-General for the Political Affairs, briefed the Security Council on the last developments in Sahel, in particular in Mali, and the preparation of an integrated strategy of the United Nations in the region, in accordance with resolution 2056. On behalf of ECOWAS, the Permanent Representative of Côte d’Ivoire presented the last elements of the strategic planning of a possible military intervention in Mali.
The representative of France noted that the action of the United Nations in the Sahel had to go through an integrated approach to support the development of the region over the long term, in coordination with the other organizations already engaged in Sahel, such as the European Union, the African Union and ECOWAS. On the short term, he expressed concern about the presence of terrorist groups and traffickers in Northern Mali who threatened the regional and international stability and security. The Security Council should be prepared, when all conditions were met and when the Malian and regional actors were in phase, to support African initiatives to address the serious security crisis in northern Mali, in particular the deployment of a African operation.
On 26 September 2012, a high-level event on the Sahel was held, on the initiative of France, chaired by the Secretary-General, BAN Ki-moon. He stressed the humanitarian dimension of the crisis and outlined the UN integrated strategy for the Sahel. Recognizing the need for coordination between all stakeholders, the Secretary-General confirmed his intention to appoint a Special Envoy for the Sahel.
In his speech, the President of the French Republic, Mr François Hollande, called for the adoption of a resolution of the UN Security Council under Chapter VII, in order to implement and set in motion the African stabilization force as soon as possible to help restoring the territorial integrity of Mali and fighting terrorism.
On 4 October 2012, the Security Council met in closed consultations to discuss the follow-up of the request formulated by the Malian authorities on 21 September 2012 about the deployment of an international force under the mandate of the United Nations to assist it in the preservation of its territorial integrity and sovereignty, as well as the fight against terrorism.
At this time, the Representative of France announced the members of the Security Council that he would present a draft resolution to encourage the implementation of a political and military response to the crisis in this country.
On 9 October 2012, the UN Secretary-General appointed Mr. Romano Prodi, former Italian President of the Council and former President of the European Commission, as Special Envoy for the Sahel.
The Security Council,
Recalling its resolution 2056 (2012), its presidential statements of 26 March 2012 (S/PRST/2012/7), 4 April 2012 (S/PRST/2012/9) as well as its press statements on Mali and the Sahel of 22 March 2012, 9 April 2012, 18 June 2012, 10 August 2012 and 21 September 2012,
Reaffirming its strong commitment to the sovereignty, unity and territorial integrity of Mali,
Reiterating its serious concern about the insecurity and rapidly deteriorating humanitarian situation in the Sahel region, which is further complicated by the presence of armed and terrorist groups and their activities, as well as by the proliferation of weapons, from within and outside the region, and expressing its grave concern about the consequences of instability in the north of Mali on the region and beyond, and stressing the need to respond swiftly in order to preserve stability across the Sahel region,
Reiterating its grave concern about the continuing deterioration of the security and humanitarian situation in the north of Mali, the increasing entrenchment of terrorist elements including Al-Qaida in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM), affiliated groups and other extremist groups, and its consequences for the countries of the Sahel and beyond,
Stressing the primary responsibility of the Malian authorities for ensuring the security and unity in its territory and protecting its civilians with respect for international humanitarian law, the rule of law and human rights and emphasizing that any sustainable solution to the crisis in Mali should be Malian-led,
Expressing serious concerns about criminal groups activities in the north of Mali and recognizing the urgent need for enhanced cooperation and coordination between the Malian authorities, neighbour countries and countries of the region, in collaboration with relevant United Nations entities, regional and international organizations as well as bilateral partners, in order to tackle transnational organized crime, including illicit activities such as drug trafficking,
Encouraging the international community to provide support to resolve the crisis in Mali through coordinated actions for immediate and long-term needs, encompassing security, development and humanitarian issues,
Taking note of the letter of the Transitional authorities of Mali dated 1 September 2012 to the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) requesting military assistance to reorganize the Armed Forces of Mali and restore the territorial integrity of Mali, of which the north is occupied by terrorist groups, and combat terrorism,
Taking note of the letter of the Transitional authorities of Mali dated 23 September 2012 to ECOWAS on the conditions for the deployment of ECOWAS troops in Mali and underscoring the importance of addressing the actions outlined therein,
Taking note of the letter of the Transitional authorities of Mali dated 18 September 2012 addressed to the Secretary-General, requesting the authorization of deployment through a Security Council resolution of an international military force to assist the Armed Forces of Mali acting under Chapter VII as provided by the United Nations Charter, to recover the occupied regions in the north of Mali;
Taking note of the ECOWAS letter of 28 September 2012 addressed to the Secretary-General requesting a Security Council resolution authorizing the deployment of a stabilization force in Mali under a Chapter VII mandate of the United Nations Charter and further taking note of the ECOWAS letter of 28 September 2012 addressed to the African Union to engage with the African Union on fine-tuning the concept, modalities, and means of the deployment of a stabilization force in Mali,
Recognizing the efforts and the leadership of ECOWAS, in coordination with the African Union, on the Malian crisis, as well as the important role played by the United Nations, other regional and international organizations, neighbouring states, countries of the region and bilateral partners in the resolution of the crisis in Mali, and in this regard calling for continued coordination,
Looking forward to the meeting of the Support and Follow-up Group on Mali, convened by the African Union in consultation with the United Nations and ECOWAS, in Bamako on 19 October 2012, which aims to clarify the modalities of international support to the Malian Transitional authorities in solving the crisis in the north of Mali,
Condemning strongly the abuses of human rights committed in the north of Mali by armed rebels, terrorist and other extremist groups, including violence against its civilians, notably women and children, killings, hostage-taking, pillaging, theft, destruction of cultural and religious sites and recruitment of child soldiers, stressing that some of such acts may amount to crimes under the Rome Statute and that their perpetrators must be held accountable and noting that the Transitional authorities of Mali referred the situation in the north of Mali since January 2012 to the International Criminal Court on 18 July 2012,
Acknowledging the steps taken by Mali, including by the signing on 6 April 2012 of a Framework Agreement under the auspices of ECOWAS, towards developing a road map for the restoration of constitutional order, an inclusive national dialogue and the organization of free, transparent, and fair presidential elections within twelve months of the signing of the Framework Agreement,
Determining that the situation in Mali constitutes a threat to international peace and security,
Acting under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations,
1. Welcomes the appointment of a Government of National Unity in Mali, expresses its support to the work of the Interim president of Mali, Dioncounda Traoré and urges the Transitional authorities in Mali to present a detailed road map for transition with concrete steps and timelines and to accelerate efforts towards the strengthening of democratic institutions and the restoration of constitutional order in the Republic of Mali through the holding of timely, peaceful, inclusive and credible elections by the end of the transition;
2. Reiterates its demand that no member of the Malian Armed Forces should interfere in the work of the Transitional authorities, takes note of the decisions and recommendation by ECOWAS to adopt targeted sanctions in Mali and expresses its readiness to consider appropriate measures as necessary;
3. Calls upon Malian rebel groups to cut off all ties to terrorist organizations, notably AQIM and affiliated groups, and expresses its readiness to adopt targeted sanctions against those rebel groups who do not cut off all ties to terrorist organizations, including AQIM and affiliated groups, recalls paragraphs 20 and 24 of resolution 2056 (2012) and further decides that the 1267/1989 Committee shall take decisions on requests of Member States to add to the Al-Qaida sanctions list names of individuals, groups, undertakings, and entities in Mali that are associated with Al-Qaida, in accordance with resolutions 1267 (1999) and 1989 (2011);
4. Urges the Transitional authorities of Mali, the Malian rebel groups and legitimate representatives of the local population in the north of Mali, to engage, as soon as possible, in a credible negotiation process in order to seek a sustainable political solution, mindful of the sovereignty, unity and territorial integrity of Mali and requests the Secretary-General, as well as neighbour countries, countries of the region, international and regional organizations and other bilateral partners, to support this Malian political process;
5. Demands that all groups in the north of Mali cease all abuses of human rights and violations of international humanitarian law, including targeted attacks against the civilian population, sexual violence, recruitments of child soldiers and forced displacements, and recalls in this regard all its relevant resolutions on Women, Peace and Security, on Children and armed conflicts and on Protection of civilians in armed conflicts;
6. Declares its readiness, upon receiving the Secretary-General’s report referred to in paragraph 7 below, to respond to the request of the Transitional authorities of Mali regarding an international military force assisting the Malian Armed Forces in recovering the occupied regions in the north of Mali;
7. Requests the Secretary-General to immediately provide military and security planners to assist ECOWAS and the African Union, in close consultation with Mali, the neighbour countries of Mali, countries of the region and all other interested bilateral partners and international organizations, in the joint planning efforts to respond to the request of the Transitional authorities of Mali for such an international military force, and further requests the Secretary-General, in close consultation with the above-mentioned partners, to submit, no later than forty-five days after the adoption of this resolution, a written report on the implementation of this resolution, including support provided under paragraph 4 and this paragraph, and detailed and actionable recommendations to respond to the request of the Transitional authorities of Mali regarding an international military force, including means and modalities of the envisaged deployment, in particular the concept of operations, force generation capabilities strength and support financial costs;
8. Calls upon the Transitional authorities of Mali to take immediately all the appropriate measures to facilitate the regional and international preparation efforts taken in relation with the objective outlined in paragraph 6 above, calls upon Member States, regional and international organizations, to provide coordinated support to these regional and international preparation efforts, including through military training, provision of equipment and other forms of assistance in efforts to combat terrorist and affiliated extremist groups, and further invites those Member States and organizations to inform the Secretary-General of their contributions;
9. Calls upon, in this context, Member States, regional and international organizations, including the African Union and the European Union, to provide as soon as possible coordinated assistance, expertise, training and capacity-building support to the Armed and Security Forces of Mali, consistent with their domestic requirements, in order to restore the authority of the State of Mali over its entire national territory, to uphold the unity and territorial integrity of Mali and to reduce the threat posed by AQIM and affiliated groups;
10. Welcomes the appointment by the Secretary-General of a Special Envoy for the Sahel, who should mobilize international efforts for the Sahel, coordinate the implementation of the United Nations integrated strategy on the Sahel and engage actively in defining the parameters of a comprehensive solution to the Malian crisis;
11. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter.
On 12 October 2012, the Security Council unanimously adopted the resolution 2071, presented by France and co-sponsored by Morocco, Togo, South Africa, India, Germany and the United Kingdom, calling upon Malian rebel armed groups to cut off all ties to terrorist organizations or face international community sanctions. Resolution 2071 also urges the Malian authorities to engage in a political dialogue with them. It requests ECOWAS and the African Union, with the assistance of the UN and of their bilateral partners, to plan jointly the deployment of an international force with a mission to assist the Malian Armed Forces in recovering the occupied regions in the north of Mali and combating international terrorism.
On 5 December 2012, as requested by resolution 2071, Mr. Jeffrey Feltman, Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs, presented the conclusions of the Secretariat’s report stressing the urgency of an international response to the Malian crisis. This response had to be implemented particularly in a political context and to take into account the humanitarian risks posed by an intervention, which should be subject to a depth preparation.
With one voice, representatives of Mali, ECOWAS and of the African Union urged the Security Council to authorize the deployment of an African-led International Support Mission in Mali (AFISMA) as soon as possible, emphasizing the severity of the threats to international peace and security posed by the presence of terrorist groups associated with Al-Qaeda in Northern Mali.
Afterwards, Council members have met in private consultations, during which France has announced its plan to table a draft resolution combining political and military actions, in order to work for the reconstruction of the Malian institutions and help the country to regain its territorial integrity by fighting against terrorism.
On 10 December 2012, the Security Council held a public debate on the situation in Sahel, in the presence of the Secretary-General and of his Special Envoy for the region Mr. Romano Prodi. On this occasion, the minister for foreign Affairs of Morocco, as President of the Security Council, made a statement calling for an enhanced cooperation between the States of Sahel and Maghreb.
In his statement, the French Representative stressed the importance of finding solutions to Sahel challenges, carried and implemented by local actors. He also stressed that only an integrated approach, including security issues, could help finding the conditions of an enduring stability. He called upon the Secretariat to present without delay the strategy of the United Nations for Sahel.
On 11 December 2012, the Security Council adopted a press statement condemning the arrest of Cheik Modibo Diarra, Mali’s Prime Minister, by members of the country’s armed forces, which led to his resignation and the dismissal of the Government.
On 20 December 2012, the Security Council adopted unanimously resolution 2085 authorizing the deployment of an African-led international Support Mission in Mali (AFISMA), for an initial period of one year.
On 10 January 2013, following a military offensive of extremist armed groups form the North against the Southern region of Mopti, an emergency meeting of the Security Council was called by France.
The representative of France firmly condemned the offensive, which represented another serious threat to regional and international peace and security. The rapid deployment of an African force in Mali was necessary. The fall of the city of Mopti appeared to be imminent. He informed the Council that Mali had requested military assistance from France to defend itself against this act of agression. The presidency of the Security Council also circulated to Council members a letter from the Presidency of Mali informing the Secretary General of the UN of this request.
During the meeting, the Security Council adopted a statement reiterating its call to member states to provide support to the Malian Defence and Security forces.
In his remarks to the press, the Permanent Representative of France to the United Nations emphasized the urgency “to act against this threat and to work to restore the stability and the unity of Mali”.
On 11 January 2013, the Permanent Representative of France informed the Security Council that France had answered to the request for military assistance issued by the Malian authorities by providing, within the bounds of international law, the support of its armed forces to the Malian units engaged in the fight against terrorist groups. He underscored out that the evolution of the situation justified the acceleration of the implementation of resolution 2085, which includes the deployment of an African force of assistance.
On 14 January 2013, following the launch by France of operation Serval in support of the Malian armed forces against the aggression of terrorist groups from the North of the country, the Security Council met at the initiative of France for an exchange of information between members and the Secretariat. The Permanent Representative of France stressed that the operation Serval was carried out within the bounds of international law. It allowed the acceleration of the timetable set by resolution 2085. Following the meeting, Gérard Araud met with the United Nations press corps.
On 22 January 2013, the Security Council met in public and heard a report on the situation in Mali by Mr. Jeffrey Feltman, Under Secretary General for Political Affairs.
Success in tackling the ongoing crisis in Mali requires strong military action along with intense focus on the political challenges, while also addressing the dire humanitarian situation in the country, Mr. Feltman said. He underscored that the United Nations had obtained confirmation that the terrorist groups had the intention to attack Bamako when they were stopped by the operation Serval, carried out by the French armed forces. The Secretary General, he added, had applauded the operation.
AFISMA and the Malian army were facing critical gaps in terms of equipment and logistical support, Mr. Feltman said. He called upon members States to provide their support to both at the donors conference of 29 January in Addis Ababa.
Several African permanent representatives and observers including from Mali, Niger, Burkina Faso and Cote d’Ivoire, speaking in the name of ECOWAS, expressed their gratitude to the French intervention and renewed their call for a logistical and financial help to the African contingents.
During the private consultations which followed, the French representative continued informing Council members on operational details. The terrorists were losing ground and fleeing to the North. The cities of Douentza, Diabali and Kona had been retaken by the Malian forces with French support.
Ambassador Araud also briefed the press after the meeting.
On 25 January 2013, the Secretary-General’s Special Representative and head of the UN Office to West Africa(UNOWA), Mr. Saïd Djinnit, presented during a public meeting his report to the Security Council.
Concerning Mali, he stressed the need of engaging a political process now that the French intervention in the country, supported by the United Nations, had paved the way for AFISMA deployment.
During the following closed consultations, the French Representative insisted on the emergency of launching the political process. He added that only mediation efforts taking into account the claims of Northern Malians could lead to a lasting peace relying on a Malian national pact.
France called upon the United Nations Secretariat to deploy observers to monitor the situation of Human Rights in Mali, in accordance with resolution 2085.
On 6 February 2013, as requested by France, the Security Council met to update the situation in Mali. The representative of France reported on military progress of French and Malian forces: the territory had almost been totally regained. He welcomed the adoption by the Malian authorities of a road map announcing the holding of elections before the end of the year. Once the situation stabilized, AFISMA should be converted in a UN peacekeeping operation.
Following the consultations, Mr Gérard Araud briefed the press: prospects of the conflict resolution in the UN had the agreement of all members of the Council.
On 27 February 2013, at the request of France, the Security Council met in closed consultations to hear Mr Jeffrey Feltman, Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs, on Mali.
The French representative reported on the ongoing stabilization of Mali since the beginning of the military operations.
At the initiative of France, a letter of the President of the Security Council will be transmitted to the Secretary-General, requesting him to report in the coming weeks on the conditions of transformation of AFISMA in a peacekeeping operation.
Following the consultations, Mr Gérard Araud briefed the press.
On 18 March 2013, Mrs Valerie Amos, Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief Coordinator briefed the Security Council. Mrs Amos presented the humanitarian situation in Mali, pointing out that even if the situation improved in the centre of the country, it was still really fragile in Northern Mali.
The representative of France stressed that the situation was still under control thanks to the military operations led jointly by the Malian, the African and the French forces.
He welcomed the improvement of the humanitarian situation, pointing out, however, the need to remain careful about abuses and reprisals committed by both the armed groups and the armed forces.
He highlighted the need to deploy as fast as possible Human rights observers as provided by resolution 2085.
On 27 March 2013, the Security Council met in closed consultations to hear M.Tayé Brook Zerihoun, Assistant Secretary-General for Political Affairs, and Mr. Edmond Mulet, Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping operations, present the report of the Secretary-General about a future peacekeeping operation in Mali.
The representative of France welcomed the security stability regained since the beginning of the French military intervention in the country, also welcoming the deployment of AFISMA. This situation allowed to consider a gradual downsizing of the French forces at the end of April, while accompanying the ramp up of a UN future operation of stabilization. He also recalled that all dimensions of the Malian crisis should be considered in the answer brought forward by the United Nations, especially the support for a political solution.
Following the consultations, Mr Gérard Araud briefed the press.
On 3 April 2013, Mr Jeffrey Feltman, Under Secretary General for Political Affairs, briefed the Security Council and the representatives of Côte d’Ivoire and Mali, the options proposed by the Secretary-General to deploy a stabilization operation in Mali.
During the closed consultations that followed, the representative of France stressed the importance of the rapid implementation of a political process in the country, supported by the appointment of a Special Representative of the Secretary-General. He noted that the stabilization phase of the country should be engaged as soon as possible to preserve the achievements of the French military intervention. A UN stabilizing force seemed to be the best option, its deployment would occur by July and will be concomitant with the gradual reduction of the French contingent in the country.
On 19 June 2013, the Security Council released a press statement welcoming the signing in Ouagadougou on 18 June of a “Preliminary Agreement to the Presidential Election and the Inclusive Peace Talks in Mali” between the transitional authorities of Mali and the National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad (MNLA) and the High Council for the Unity of Azawad (HCUA).
On 25 June 2013, pursuant to Resolution 2100, the Security Council met in public and in private consultations to assess the situation in Mali, in presence of the Malian Minister of Foreign Affairs Tieman Coulibaly and the Special Representative of the Secretary-General in the country, Bert Koenders.
The members of the Security Council noted the restoration of the territorial integrity of Mali, the absence of major security incidents and the undeniable progress in the political process after the signing of the Ouagadougou Agreement. They therefore unanimously acknowledged the absence of any obstacle to the deployment on 1 July of the stabilization force UN MINUSMA, in relay of African forces.
In his remarks to the press the French representative pointed out that the withdrawal of French troops would continue at the end of the summer, once MINUSMA had started its implementation, with the view of maintaining a remaining presence of 1,000 men in Mali at the end of 2013. France would continue also to play a role in support of peacekeepers, should they face and imminent and serious threat.
On 26 June 2013, Romano Prodi, Special Envoy of the Secretary General for the Sahel region, presented to the Security Council the United Nations integrated strategy.
During the following private consultations the representative of France welcomed this document and in particular its transversal approach of the tasks currently carried out by UN agencies. He called on the Security Council to carefully monitor its implementation.
On 16 July 2013, Romano Prodi, Special Envoy of the Secretary General for the Sahel region, presented to the Security Council the United Nations integrated strategy. The representative of France welcomed this document and in particular its transversal approach of the tasks currently carried out by UN agencies. He called on the Security Council to carefully monitor its implementation.
The Security Council adopted a presidential statement to strengthen trans-regional and inter-regional coordination and cooperation in the region and to optimize synergies within this strategy. The members of the Security Council stated that strengthening the collective solidarity of the whole region was essential to fight effectively against arms trafficking, drugs dealing and terrorism.
On 16 August 2013, the Security Council released a press statement taking note of the provisional results of the presidential runoff elections in Mali. The members of the Security Council considered the holding of these elections a major step toward the restoration of democratic governance and constitutional order in Mali.
On 26 September 2013, Mr. Laurent Fabius, Minister of Foreign Affairs, and Mr. Pascal Canfin, Minister Delegate for Development, attached to the Minister of Foreign Affairs, participated in a High-Level Meeting on the Sahel region. This event, at the initiative of the UN Secretary-General, gathered many Heads of state, regional organizations, the African Development Bank and the World Bank.
The event was designed to provide an impetus to the implementation of the UN integrated strategy, in order to address the humanitarian issues and security, governance and development challenges of the Sahel region.
At this occasion, Mr. Laurent Fabius stated that the UN action in the region should focus on three priority areas. Firstly, he called for a reinforcement of the regional dimension of the integrated strategy, noting that economic development, such as drugs or arms trafficking, knew no boundaries and should be addressed at the regional level. Secondly, he said that the fight against radicalization was a priority to establish a sustainable peace and stability in the region. Finally, he called for the emergence of strong and virtuous States through a better managed decentralization, better control over public spending and a greater transparency of the international aid.
Following this meeting, Mrs. Fabius made some remarks to the press.
On 16 October 2013, the Security Council met in public and in private consultations to assess the situation in Mali, in presence of the Malian Minister of National Reconciliation and Development of Northern Regions of Mali, Cheick Oumar Diarrah, and the Special Representative of the Secretary-General in the country and Head of MINUSMA, Bert Koenders.
During this session, Mr. Albert Koenders stated that there had been a general improvement in Mali and that preparations for legislative elections scheduled for 24 November and 1 December were proceeding. However, he also referred to the terrorist attacks perpetuated the last few weeks and added that security, justice and reconciliation were the Government of Mali’s immediate priorities. He also said that the human rights situation should be carefully monitored and that humanitarian needs remained still considerable and educational needs urgent.
The Malian Minister recalled the will of the Malian people to take charge of their own destiny welcomed the deployment of the Malian security forces, of MINUSMA, as well as of Operation Serval. He called for a renewed deployment of the Malian army throughout the country, as well as for an urgent contribution of the international community so that MINUSMA obtains adequate means to perform its mission in accordance with the terms of paragraphs 16 and 17 of Resolution 2100. He added the threat of terrorist groups should not be neglected as the Malian crisis was considered over.
During the closed consultations, the representative of France stressed that stabilization of Mali was a success. He nevertheless stressed the many challenges that faced the country, including the holding of legislative elections and of the reconciliation dialogue. He also said that the redeployment of Malian armed forces in the North should be made in a concerted manner and recalled the prolonged support of French forces to MINUSMA in the fight against terrorism. Lastly, with regard to the deployment of MINUSMA, Mr. Araud called on the Force to make full use of its mandate in support of Malian forces.
Following the meeting, the representative of France briefed the press.
On 23 October 2013, the Security Council adopted a press statement condemning the attacks by unidentified armed assailants on the MINUSMA in Tessalit in which Chadian peacekeepers were killed, others were severely injured and innocent civilians were killed.
On 2 November 2013, the Security Council adopted a press statement strongly condemning the kidnapping and assassination of two French journalists in Kidal. It recalled that, in accordance with international humanitarian law, journalists, media professionals and associated personnel engaged in dangerous professional missions in areas of armed conflict are generally considered as civilians and shall be respected and protected as such.
On 12 December 2013, the French Presidency of the Security Council organized a briefing on the situation in the Sahel, with the participation of the Secretary General, Mr. Ban Ki-moon, the President of the World Bank, Mr. Jim Yong Kim, the United Nations Special Envoy for the Sahel, Mr. Prodi, the EU Special Representative for the Sahel, Mr. Reveyrand de Menthon, the Ambassador of the African Union to the United Nations, Mr. Antonio, and the President of the African Development Bank, Mr. Kaberuka.
The briefers presented the results of their joint visit to the Sahel on 4 to 7 November in the region. This visit, focused on development issues, led to announcements from the World Bank and the European Union on the increase of their assistance to reach 8 billion dollars over the next five years. The EU Special Representative recalled that security was an essential condition for sustainable development. The EU was ready to redouble diplomatic and operational efforts for Mali. He stressed the importance of associating African researchers and intellectuals, as well as all the countries of the region, to implement the United Nations strategy for the Sahel. The African Union thanked France for its military operation in Mali and welcomed the progress of the situation in the country since the deployment of MINUSMA, as well as the African Union cooperation with the United Nations.
Several delegations called for the implementation of the United Nations strategy for the Sahel, as well as for a reinforcement of regional and transborder cooperation, in order to combat transnational threats such as terrorism and transnational organized crime, including drug and arms trafficking. In this context, the delegations welcomed the establishment, in Bamako on 5 November, of a special mechanism to ensure coordination between the countries in the region.
The permanent representative of France welcomed the commitments announced by the World Bank and the EU, and recalled that France had decided to increase its assistance to 1, 2 billion dollars until 2015. While terrorist groups and drug smugglers had no boundaries, it was essential that the Sahel states coordinate and work confidently. To this end, France organized on 18 December a meeting on drug trafficking and its implications for peace and security in West Africa and in the Sahel.
Following this meeting, the Security Council adopted a presidential statement.
On 14 December 2013, the Security Council adopted in press statement condemning the attack by unidentified armed assailants on the MINUSMA in Kidali, in which Senegalese peacekeepers were killed, other peacekeepers were severely injured, as well of members of Malian armed forces.
On 17 December 2013, the United Nations Special representative for Sahel and head of the United Nations Office for West Africa (UNOWA), Mr. Saïd Djinnit, presented its twelfth report on the situation in West Africa. He welcomed the return to the constitutional order in Mali and the pursuit of the ongoing political dialogue, while affirming that challenges in terms of stability and security remained important. The Special representative called on the opposition leaders of Guinea Conakry to cooperate for having the National Assembly sit before the end of the year. He welcomed the Mano River Union’s adoption of the cross-border strategy, in Conakry last October, and welcomed the implementation of a coordination platform between the Sahel countries, which continued to face the threats of terrorism and transnational organized crime. He finally recalled that several countries of West Africa were entering an election campaign.
During the closes consultations that followed, the permanent representative of France, in his capacity as the President of the Security Council, noted several points of convergence between the members of the Council, including the importance of preventive diplomacy in the region, the constructive role the Special Representative played in Guinea, and the necessity of good regional coordination to fight against transnational threats in the Sahel.
On 16 January 2014, the Security Council met in public and private consultations to assess the situation in Mali, in presence of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General in the country and head of MINUSMA, Mr. Bert Koenders.
During this session, Mr. Koenders stated that there had been a general improvement in Mali with the return to constitutional order. The legislative elections were held without incident and President Keïta had strengthened the fight against corruption and impunity, stability and economic recovery, respect for human rights and good governance. Mali had to seize this opportunity and strengthen these gains to address the root causes of the crisis in the country. Inclusive talks on national reconciliation should start without delay. Security sector reform as well as the process of cantonment for the non-terrorists armed groups and the process of DDR had to be speeded up, which required more attention from the Security Council. Despite the efforts of the Malian defense forces and of MINUSMA, the security conditions in the north remained fragile. Mr. Koenders condemned increased terrorist attacks, resulting in the deaths of civilians, as well as Malian Armed Forces and MINSUMA soldiers. With the help of the international community, the authority of the State needed to be restored throughout the territory. Finally, if progress had been made at the humanitarian level, the needs remained considerable.
During the closed consultations that followed, the permanent representative of France welcomed the successful holding of the legislative elections, which was a major achievement. Political dialogue on national reconciliation now had to begin without further delay. The Malian authorities needed to be prodded to move forward. Finally, the permanent representative deplored delays in the deployment of MINUSMA in Northern Mali. This was a priority issue.
On 23 January 2014, the Security Council adopted a presidential statement on the situation in Mali.
On 26 February 2014, the Permanent Representatives of France and of Chad presented the report of the visit of the Security Council to Mali.
The Permanent Representative of France recalled that the Security Council met President Ibrahim Boubacar Keita, Prime Minister Oumar Tatam Ly and several members of his government. The Council furthermore met armed groups, as well as local authorities and representatives of civil society. During discussions, the Council had underlined that any sustainable solution for Northern Mali should be found by Malians themselves, with the support by the international community. Armed groups had to be disarmed in the framework of a negotiated political process, in accordance with the commitments made in the Ouagadougou agreement. If the Council had perceived a lack of trust between the government and armed groups, it nevertheless welcomed the government’s roadmap to resolve the crisis, and the adoption by both parties, a few days ago, of a cantonment method. Parties should now proceed sincerely and without delay on that path. The Council had also stressed that sustainable security of Northern Mali necessarily involved an overall political solution. Full and rapid deployment of the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali in the North was urgent, particularly in the context of the decrease of Serval. Resentatives of the Malian civil society had insisted that there would be no sustainable peace in Mali without development.
One year after the adoption of resolution 2100 (2013) which created MINUSMA (United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Mission for the Stabilization in Mali), the Security Council met on 23 April 2014 to discuss the situation in Mali.
The Special Representative of the Secretary-General and head of MINUSMA, Mr Bert Koenders, deplored the lack of progress in the launching of an inclusive negotiation that would lead to a durable peace in Northern Mali. He called on Malian authorities and on the armed groups who signed the Ouagadougou agreement to engage in formal discussions to this end. Mali’s Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr Abdoulaye Diop, commended the essential support of the international community in the resolution of this crisis.
During private consultations that followed, the Permanent Representative of France regretted that the negotiations for peace seemed to have come to a halt in Mali. He renewed his support to Mr Koenders in his efforts to stabilize the country.
At the end of these consultations, a press statement prepared by France was unanimously adopted.
On 20 May 2014, the members of the Security Council met around Mr. Bert Koenders, Special Representative of the Secretary General and head of MINUSMA, and Mr. Abdoulaye Diop, Malian Minister of Foreign Affairs, African Integration and International Cooperation, for an emergency meeting on Mali after the deadly violence committed during the Malian Prime Minister’s visit to Kidal on 17 May and which caused numerous deaths, including of soldiers and Malian officials.
The Permanent Representative of France expressed deep concern about such violence which was a serious violation of resolution 2100 and of the Ouagadougou Agreement. The restoration of State authority in the whole territory was not negotiable and the political track, through an inclusive political dialogue, was the only one possible to allow a comprehensive and final peace settlement. Every effort should be made to encourage the Malian government and armed groups to enter into negotiations in order to avoid the risk of a war.
Following this meeting, on the initiative of France, a press statement was adopted.
The Representative of France also addressed the press.
On 28 May 2014, the members of the Security Council met to hear by VTC Mr. Bert Koenders, Special Representative of the Secretary General and head of MINUSMA, for an emergency meeting on Mali.
The Representative of France welcomed the ceasefire agreement signed between the Malian government and armed groups. The parties had to implement it fully and in good faith. De-escalation in Mali had to be a priority. Armed groups, in particular MNLA, had to hand over the Governorate of Kidal without delay. On the side of Malian authorities, the announcement of the launch of peace negotiations with a detailed timeline was necessary. The Representative of France further recalled that any lasting solution had to be based on the framework set by the Security Council and the Ouagadougou Agreement, and that the international community fully supported the efforts of the Special Representative, of MINUSMA, of neighboring countries and of African organizations to establish lasting peace and stability in the country. The ECOWAS Summit of 30 May would provide a vital opportunity to restart the political process. Finally, the forthcoming renewal of the mandate of MINUSMA would allow to remind the importance of a political solution.
Following this meeting, a press statement was adopted by the Security Council.