On 25 November 2013, the Security Council unanimously adopted Resolution 2126 which extends the mandate of the UN Interim Security Force for Abyei (UNISFA) for six months. During the briefings that followed, the representatives of Sudan and South Sudan recalled that Abyei was a constant source of tension between the two countries. UNISFA should continue to maintain security and support there efforts to resolve the final status issue.
On 18 November 2013, the Security Council heard the report of Mrs. Hilde Johnson, Special Representative of the Secretary-General and head of the UN mission in South Sudan (UNMISS). Regarding inter-community violence in Jonglei State, UNMISS was looking to increase its capacities for rapid response and warning and to pre-position more troops in areas that pose a major threat. The Special Representative also expressed concerns about human rights violations by security forces of South Soudan (excessive uses of force, arbitrary killings, prolonged cases of arbitrary detention, violations of the freedom of association, of circulation …). UNMISS had urged the government to take immediate action in order to bring those responsible to justice. Security sector reform and transformation of armed forces were to have been carried out. Efforts to transform f police structures have been carried out.
During the consultations that followed, the Permanent representative of France expressed concerns concerning the rise in the number of inter-communal conflict in Jonglei State. Concerning human right violations, including against UNMISS, pressure had to be maintained on the authorities of South Sudan, so that those responsible be held accountable for their crimes.
On 11 November 2013, Mr. Hervé Ladsous, Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations and Mr. John Ging, Director of Operations of the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), briefed in closed consultations the Security Council on the issue of Sudan and South Sudan, in particular on the implementation of Resolution 2046, on the Inter-Sudanese tensions on the final status of Abyei, and on concerns about the humanitarian situation in Southern Kordofan and Blue Nile regions.
The Representative of France expressed concerns about the organization of a unilateral referendum in Abyei by only Dinka Ngok community and has encouraged restraint on the ground. Priority should be given to the establishment of transitional institutions and a police service in order to improve security. A closer dialogue between Sudan and South Sudan was also needed. Finally, the Representative of France called for support to the African Union and welcomed the Peace and Security Council‘s visit to Abyei last week. On the humanitarian situation, he highlighted the scale of the needs and expressed concerns about obstacles placed by both parties to the vaccination campaign against poliomyelitis, which could not take place despite efforts of the United Nations.
On 6 November 2013, the Security Council heard in closed consultations Mrs. Margaret Carey, Director of the Africa Division of the Department of Peacekeeping Operations, on violence against United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) officials.
During the meeting, the Representative of France strongly condemned these attacks. He also expressed concern about the impunity of perpetrators.
On 25 October 2013, Mr. Hervé Ladsous, Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, briefed in closed consultations the Security Council on the latest developments in Jonglei State, in South Sudan. He reported an attack by armed groups on 20 October, in which civilians have been killed and injured, women and children abducted, cattle stolen and houses burnt, and presented the action of UNMISS.
The Representative of France condemned the cycle of violence caused by these attacks and expressed the wish that the attackers will be found so they can be brought to justice without delay. He also welcomed the speed of the UNMISS humanitarian service which intervened in Jonglei on the same day to provide medical assistance and evacuate the wounded. However, he requested further information about the mission reconfiguration in order to focus more on Jonglei, the situation in this area remaining extremely precarious.
On 24 October 2013, Mr. Tayé-Brook Zerihoun, Assistant Secretary-General for Political Affairs, briefed in closed consultations the Security Council on the issue of Sudan and South Sudan. Despite positive elements, like the meeting between the two Heads of State in Juba on 22 October and the visit of the Peace and Security Council of the African Union in Abyei scheduled for 26 and 27 October, important tensions remain. The security and humanitarian situation in Abyei remains at the heart of the concerns, while the status of the region still remains uncertain. Mr. Zerihoun reiterated his call to both parties to refrain from any unilateral decision.
The Representative of France was not really optimistic as for reaching an early agreement between the two parties. He encouraged efforts on short-term objectives by resolving first the issue of setting up an interim administration in Abyei, before addressing the issue of the final status.
On 23 October 2013, the Security Council met in a public meeting followed by closed consultations to hear the reports, by VTC, of Mr. Mohamed Ibn Chambas, joint Special Representative, Head of UNAMID, and of Mr. Hervé Ladsous, United Nations Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, on the situation in Darfur.
Mr. Chambas deplored the substantial deterioration of the security situation and strongly condemned the attacks on UNAMID, in particular those of 13 October that caused the death of 3 Senegalese peacekeepers. He called on the Sudanese Government to act quickly to bring to justice those responsible. He expressed concern about displacement of many civilians. He regretted the slow pace of implementation of the Doha document for the peace in Darfur. He called for the continuation of the dialogue with non-signatory movements in order to seek a comprehensive solution.
Mr. Ladsous also noted limited progress in the peace process, as well as a very precarious humanitarian situation. He reiterated UNAMID determination to protect civilians, to help improve the humanitarian situation and to support the peace process. He requested that freedom of movement of UNAMID in Darfur be fully respected.
The Representative of France expressed concerns at the deterioration of the security and humanitarian situation. He proposed a strategic thinking on United Nations and Security Council action in Darfur.
On 14 October 2013, the Security Council condemned in a press statement the attack by unidentified armed assailants on an African Union-United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID) military observer in El Fasher, North Darfur, on 11 October, in which a Zambian military observer was killed, and the attack by unidentified armed assailants on a UNAMID convoy near El Geneina, West Darfur, on 13 October, in which three Senegalese peacekeepers were killed and one was wounded.
On 11 October 2013, the Security Council expressed in a press statement their concern at the imminent threat of the spread of polio through South Kordofan, and the continuing outbreak of polio in the Horn of Africa.
18 September 2013. The Security Council met in a closed meeting to hear the report of the Special Envoy for Sudan and South Sudan. Despite the welcomed political improvements, like the meeting between the two Heads of State beginning of September, Mr. Menkerios recalled that important tensions remain between the two states. No progress was made in the establishment of temporary institutions in Abyei and the issue of the referendum has not been solved yet. Finally, the delimitation of the demilitarized zone between the two states is still being debated.
The Representative of France expressed concerns about the increase of tensions in Abyei. They could once again endanger the relations between the two countries. He reiterated his call to both parties that they resume dialogue in order to establish temporary institutions in the area.
On 5 September 2013, Mr. Hervé Ladsous, Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations briefed in closed consultations the Security Council on the issue of Sudan and South Sudan. Mr. Ladsous welcomed the improvement of the diplomatic relations between the two states, marked by the meeting of the two Heads of State in Khartoum on September 3rd. The decision of Khartoum to suspend the closing of the oil pipeline and the one of Juba to support the Sudanese debt relief request both represent significant progress. However, two issues remain obstructed: the mutual support to the different rebel groups and the delimitation of the zero line, which determines a demilitarized zone between Sudan and South Sudan. The situation in this border zone remains very volatile according to Mr. Ladsous. The persistent will of Juba to unilaterally conduct a referendum on Abyei’s status fuels tensions, especially while both parties are trying to influence the region’s demography.
During these consultations, France welcomed the suspension of the closure of the oil pipeline. France added however that the fluctuating tensions prevent any long lasting improvement of the bilateral relations. The Representative of France called on both parties to fully cooperate in the framework of existing mechanisms. He also expressed his concerns at the risks of escalation, especially in Abyei. He therefore called the two states to resume negotiations to establish interim institutions in Abyei, such as the police.
The complete timeline of events here.
France is deeply committed to supporting United Nations and African Union efforts to resolve the crisis in Darfur, which broke out in early 2003. The conflict in Darfur has claimed at least 200,000 civilian lives and caused the flight of over two million displaced persons and refugees.
MINUAD: Hybrid UN-AU Mission in Darfur
France, in conjunction with the United Kingdom, initiated Resolution 1769 (2007), which created the African Union/United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID), in order to end the conflict between rebel movements and the Sudanese army and militias backed by the Sudanese government. 23,000 military and police are deployed under UNAMID (26,000 are authorised), taking over from 7000 soldiers of the African Union Mission in Sudan, whose mandate ended on 31 December 2007.
The Security Council, through resolution 2003 (2011) extended the mandate of UNAMID for 12 months, until 31 July 2012.
Ibrahim Gambari of Nigeria has been the Joint African Union-United Nations Special Representative for Darfur since 1 January 2010.
UN - AU Mediation in Darfur
France has actively participated in international efforts headed by the joint mediation of the United Nations and African Union in order to consolidate the ceasefire and find a sustainable solution for the Darfur crisis. To this end, both organizations appointed Mr. Djibril Bassolé, former Minister of Foreign Affairs of Burkina-faso, as mediator in June 2008. An "All Darfur Stakeholders Conference" took place at the end of May 2011 in Doha. At the initiative of the mediator Djibril Bassole, the participants agreed on the establishment of an internal process of dialogue and consultation in Darfur which should be the basis for a permanent cease-fire in the region. In July 2011, Mr. Ibrahim Gambari, the Joint African Union-United Nations Special Representative for Darfur, was appointed acting Joint Chief Mediator in Darfur, in place of Mr. Djibril Bassolé.
Arms embargo and individual sanctions
Since 2004, the Security Council has maintained an arms embargo on weapons bound for Darfur (resolution 1556).
resolution 1591 (2005) set up a Sanctions Committe (called 1591 Committee) in charge of overseeing the embargo on Darfur and designate individuals and entities for individual sanctions (assets freeze, travel ban). The Committee is assisted by a panel of experts. Since 2006, individual sanctions have been imposed on perpetrators of violent acts in Darfur.
The president of the Sanctions Committee submits a report to the Security Council every three months.
Resolution 1945 (October 2010, adopted by 14 votes with one abstention from China) extended until 19 October 2011 the mandate of the Panel.
Resolution 1945 makes it compulsory for States to notify the Sanctions Committee of all arms transfers to Darfur under the Comprehensive Peace Agreement and requires that all deliveries of weapons to Sudan be subject to assurances concerning the end users so as to prevent their diversion into Darfur.
The EU for its part introduced a total ban on arm sales to Sudan.
Work of the International Criminal Court
In 2005, the Security Council requested that the International Criminal Court (ICC) investigate the massive human rights violations in Darfur. France, along with the other members of the Security Council party to the Statute of the International Criminal Court, supported resolution 1593 (2005), which submitted this case to the ICC. This Resolution constituted the first time the Security Council had brought a case before the ICC under the Rome Statute (1998). The ICC issued warrants for the arrest of the Sudanese Minister for Humanitarian Affairs, Ahmad Harun, and a regional Janjaweed militia leader, Ali Kushayb, on 2 May 2007. On 4 March 2009, Pre-Trial Chamber I of the International Criminal Court (ICC) issued a warrant for the arrest of Omar Hassan Ahmad Al Bashir, President of Sudan, for war crimes and crimes against humanity. Another arrest warrant was issued on 12 July 2010 against President Bashir for genocide (the first warrant for genocide by the ICC).
In the six-monthly debate in the Security Council on 3 June 2013 on the follow-up of resolution 1593, the Chief Prosecutor of the ICC, Fatou Bensouda, again deplored that the Sudanese government was not cooperating with the ICC, contrary to the provisions of resolution 1593 (2005). She said "with a deep sense of frustration and even despair" to the Council that crimes continued to be committed in Darfur, including some involving personalities already prosecuted by the International Criminal Court. She called on the Council to act on the basis of information collected by the ICC to allow the arrest of Omar el-Bashir, or at least prevent him from traveling.
United Nations Interim Security Force for Abyei (UNISFA)
A new UN peacekeeping mission was created in June 2011, to deal with the situation in the disputed region of Abyei, which lies between Sudan and South Sudan.
On 27 June 2011, following the occupation of the area of Abyei by Sudan’s army on 21 May and the subsequent agreement of demilitarization concluded between the Government of Sudan and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement on 20 June, the Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 1990 which authorizes the deployment, for a period of six months, of the United Nations Interim Security Force for Abyei (UNISFA), with a maximum of 4,200 peacekeepers.
Resolution 1990 gives UNISFA the mandate, in particular, to monitor and verify the redeployment of the belligerents, to ensure security in the area, to facilitate the delivery of humanitarian aid and the rapid return of displaced persons. Resolution 1990 gives UNISFA a robust mandate, directs the parties to facilitate the rapid return of displaced persons, and requests that effective human rights monitoring be carried out.
The independence of the Republic of South-Sudan was proclaimed on 9 July 2011. On 14 July 2011 the General Assembly adopted resolution 308 admitting South Sudan as the 193rd member of the United Nations. A new UN peacekeeping mission was set up in South Sudan on 8 July.
South Sudan’s flag raising ceremony following its admission to the United Nations in the presence of Joseph Deiss (left) President of the sixty-fifth session of the General Assembly, Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon (centre); Riek Machar Teny-Dhurgon (right) Vice President of the Republic of South Sudan (Franceonu photo/ Elliot Bellanger)
Referendum on the self-determination of South Sudan
A referendum on the self-determination of South Sudan started on 9 January 2011, in accordance with the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement. It proceeded "in a transparent and credible way", as the French permanent representative pointed out at the Security Council on 18 January. The vote resulted in 98.83% in favor of independence, according to final results released on 7 February 2011.
The international community was mobilized to ensure the successful implementation of the results during the transition period leading to the declaration of independence on 9 July 2011.
A high-level meeting on Sudan was held on 24 September 2010 in New York on the sidelines of the 65th General Assembly. The meeting was chaired by Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon and was attended by both Sudanese parties (Mr Ali Osman Taha, vice-president of Sudan and Mr Salva Kiir Mayardit president South Sudan), as well as Jean Ping President of the AU Commission, and a dozen heads of state and government, including President Obama.
The main purpose of the meeting was to highlight the importance of the full implementation of the final phase of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement of 2005 (CPA), including the scheduled referenda on self-determination in South Sudan and on the status of Abyei. A final communiqué was issued which insists on the date of 9 January for the referendum.
The Security Council met on several occasions ahead of referendum: on 16 December 2010 (See intervention of France), during which a presidential statement was adopted (PRST/2010/28); on 16 November 2010, the Security Council held a ministerial meeting chaired by British Foreign Minister, William Hague, and in the presence of Mr. Ali Karti, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Sudan, Mr. Pagam Amum, Secretary General of the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM), Mr Ban Ki-moon, Secretary General of the UN, Hillary Clinton, U.S. Secretary of State and adopted a Presidential Statement (See the intervention of France).
United Nations Mission in the Sudan (UNMIS) and United Nations Mission in the Republic of South Sudan (UNMISS)
The UN has been present in the South of Sudan (what is now South-Sudan) since 2005. Resolution 1590 (24 March 2005) established the UN Mission in Sudan (UNMIS). The United Nations deployed a large operation to support the implementation of the "Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) between North and South Sudan, signed on 9 January 2005 in Nairobi.
The mandate of UNMIS, which seeked to protect civilians, was extended (through resolution 1978 of 27 April 2011) until the independence of South Sudan on 9 July 2011. Almost 10.000 troops were deployed as part of this mission.
On 8 July 2011, the Security Council, with resolution 1996 adopted unanimously, established for one year the United Nations Mission in the Republic of South Sudan (UNMISS). It gives UNMISS the mandate to consolidate peace and security in the Country, in particular by fostering longer-term state-building and economic development. It also gives UNMISS a robust mandate for protecting civilians under Chapter VII of the UN Charter. UNMISS will consist of up to 7,000 military personnel and up to 900 civilian police personnel. UNMISS replaces UNMIS in the areas where UNMIS operated on what is now the new State of the Republic of South Sudan.
On 11 July 2011, the Security Council adopted resolution 1997 deciding to withdraw UNMIS.
Since 29 July 2011, Mr Haile Menkerios of South Africa is the UN Special Envoy for Sudan and South Sudan.
— Under the French presidency of the Security Council, the Council travelled to Ethiopia, Sudan and Kenya from 19 to 24 May 2011. In Sudan, the members of the Security Council went to Khartoum, Juba and Wau. During the visit, violence erupted in Abyei. On 22 May 2011, Mr. Gerard Araud, President of the Security Council read a press statement on the situation in Abyei on behalf of the Council.
— The Security Council traveled to Uganda and Sudan from 5 to 10 October 2010. In Sudan, the Council went to Juba, where they met with the President of the Autonomous Region of Southern Sudan, Mr Salva Kiir. The Council also traveled to Al Fasher, headquarters of the UN- AU mission in Darfur (UNAMID) and to Khartoum, where meetings took place with the Sudanese Foreign minister, Mr Ali Karti, and Vice-President Taha. Martin Briens, Deputy Permanent Representative Permanent Representation of France to the UN, represented France during the trip.
5 June 2013 - Security Council - Sudan/Report of the ICC Prosecutor – Statement by Mr. Martin Briens, Deputy Permanent Representative of France to the United Nations
13 December 2012 - Security Council - Sudan ICC Report - Statement by Mr. Martin Briens, Deputy Permanent Representative of France to the United Nations
More French statements here.
25 November 2013 - Security Council - Resolution 2126 which extends the mandate of the UN Interim Security Force for Abyei (UNISFA) for six months.
14 October 2013 - Security Council - Press statement - Attacks against UNAMID
11 October 2013 - Security Council - Press statement - Polio vaccination in Sudan
23 August 2013 - Security Council - Presidential Statement on the relations between Sudan and South Sudan.
30 July 2013 - Security Council - Resolution 2113 renewing for one year UNAMID’s mandate
15 July 2013 - Security Council - Press statement condemning the attack that killed seven UNAMID staff members
29 May 2013 - Security Council - Resolution 2104, renewing UNISFA mandate for 6 months.
6 May 2013 - Security Council - Press statement
14 February 2013 - Security Council - Resolution 2091 renewing for one year the mandate of the expert panel of the 1591 sanctions committee
16 November 2012- Security Council - Resolution 2075 extending the mandate of the UNISFA until 31 May 2012
31 August 2012 - Security Council - Presidential statement
5 July 2012 - Security Council - Resolution 2057 which extended the mandate of UNMISS
7 May 2012 - Security Council - Resolution 2047 renewing for six months the mandate of UNISFA
2 May 2012 - Security Council - Resolution 2046
12 April 2012 - Security Council - Sudan and South Sudan - Presidential statement
17 February 2012 - Resolution 2035 renewing for one year the mandate of the expert panel of the 1591 sanction committee
22 December 2011 - Security Council - Resolution 2032 - Renewing the mandate of UNISFA
29 July 2011 - Security Council - Resolution 2003 renewing the mandate of UNAMID.
14 July 2011 - General Assembly - Resolution 308 admitting South Sudan as the 193rd member of the United Nations
13 July 2011 - Resolution 1999 of the Security Council recommending the admission of the Republic of South Sudan as member of the United Nations.
11 July 2011 - Resolution 1997 deciding to withdraw the United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS)
8 July 2011 - Resolution 1996 - Establishing the UN Mission in the Republic of South Sudan (UNMISS)
27 June 2011 - Resolution 1990 - Establishing the UN Interim Security Force for Abyei (UNISFA)
22 May 2011 - The situation in Abyei, Sudan - Press Statement by Mr Gérard Araud, President of the Security Council
27 April 2011 - Resolution 1978 - Renewing the UNMIS mandate
14 October 2010 - Resolution 1945 (2010)
24 September 2010 - Final communiqué of the high-level meeting on Sudan
30 July 2010 - Resolution 1935 (2010) - Extension of UNAMID mandate
25 February 2010 - Press statement by Gérard Araud, President of the UN Security Council
30 July 2009 - Resolution 1881 (2009) - Extension of UNAMID mandate
31 July 2007 - Resolution 1769 (2007) - Defining UNAMID’s mandate
31 March 2005 - Resolution 1593 (2005) - Referring the situation in Darfur to the ICC
29 March 2005- Resolution 1591 (2005) - Imposing an embargo on the parties to the conflict in Darfur
24 March 2005 - Resolution 1590 (2005) - Establishing UNMIS
30 July 2004 - Resolution 1556 (2004)
Sudan file on France-Diplomatie