On 22 December 2010, the Security Council met to hear the quarterly report of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Afghanistan, Mr. Staffan de Mistura. The meeting followed the decisions taken at the NATO Summit in Lisbon which validated a strategy aimed at transferring the responsibility of security to the Afghan forces by 2014. It also occurred the day after the official announcement by the Independent Electoral Commission of the results of legislative elections of 18 September 2010.
In his statement, the French Representative noted that these elections had been held under very difficult circumstances and, if they were not perfect, they nevertheless had allowed the Afghan people to express its will and its institutions to demonstrate that they were able to prepare, conduct and monitor elections. It was a strong message sent in favor of an inter-Afghan reconciliation. The results proclaimed by the independent electoral commissions had to be respected and the new Parliament had to be convened as soon as possible. On the security front, despite encouraging developments, the situation remained worrying, in particular because of the indiscriminate nature of attacks by the Taliban, held against civilian and military targets.
On 22 March 2011, the Security Council adopted resolution 1974 renewing the mandate of UNAMA until March 2012. The resolution reaffirms the role of UNAMA to support the Afghan government. It confirms the guidelines set for the transfer of responsibilities in the field of security. The Security Council reaffirms its support for the work of the Special Representative Staffan de Mistura. A general review of the UN action will be undertaken before the end of the year for the next renewal of UNAMA’s mandate in March 2012. The mandate of UNAMA is updated but the priorities established in March 2010 remain valid (see the intervention of France on the Security Council during the debate on Afghanistan on 17 March).
On 1 April 2011, following the attack against the UNAMA operations centre in Mazar-i-Sharif, which resulted in the death of seven UN staff, the Security Council made a press statement condemning this act of violence.
On 6 July 2011, the Special Representative of the Secretary-General, Mr. Staffan de Mistura presented to the Security Council his report on the current situation in Afghanistan as well as his implications towards peace and national security. In his statement, the permanent representative of France to the United Nations stressed France’s engagement in the progressive and peaceful transfer of security responsibilities to the Afghan authorities.
On 29 September 2011, the Special Representative of the Secretary-General in Afghanistan, Mr. Staffan de Mistura, submitted his report to the Security Council. Mr. Zalmay Rasul, Afghan Minister of Foreign Affairs, also addressed the Security Council on the situation of his country and the security implications in the region.
The Permanent Representative of France to the United Nations recalled the French support to the Afghans in their fight against terrorism and their reconciliation efforts following the attack that killed former Afghan President Rabbani. He underscored that French efforts were aimed at accompanying the Afghan government towards the exercise of its full sovereignty, while stressing that 2014 would not mark the end of the French commitment to Afghanistan. France would continue supporting Afghanistan through a treaty of friendship and cooperation to be signed in the near future.
On 12 October 2011, the Security Council resolution 2011 renewing the mandate of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) for one year. This renewal, which allows NATO to continue its stabilization efforts of the country, takes into account the progress made on the field through the transition process that will lead the Afghan security forces to assume full responsibility over their territory by 2014 and refers to the development of an enduring partnership between Afghanistan and the Atlantic Alliance.
On 19 December 2011, the Security Council heard the reports of the Under Secretary General for Peacekeeping Operations, Hervé Ladsous, and the acting Special Representative of the Secretary-General in Kabul, Staffan de Mistura, on the situation in Afghanistan. The Security Council also listened to Dr. Ludin, Afghan Deputy Foreign Minister on the latest developments in the peace process.
In his statement, the Representative of France welcomed the progress in Afghanistan and reaffirmed its support for strengthening the regional cooperation framework, key to a lasting stability in the country. He recalled the commitment made by France at the Bonn conference to support the transformation of the country as the transition process is under way, through the finalization of a cooperation framework for the civilian component of the action of France in the country.
On 30 January 2012, the German Permanent Representative, Peter Wittig, as chair of the Resolution 1988 sanction committee, presented the first report of the monitoring team on the possible delisting of individuals or entities listed.
On 20 March 2012, the Security Council heard Mr. Ján Kubiš, Special Representative of the Secretary General in Afghanistan, in the presence of Mr. Zahir Tanin, Permanent representative of the country. Mr. Kubiš reported progress in the ownership by the Afghan people of the transition process, noting that the national and sub-national governance institutions had been strengthened to ensure the rule of law. However, the transition had to address the challenges of the fight against trafficking, corruption and violence against women as well as the protection of civilians.
The Representative of France stressed the need for a gradual adaptation of the United Nations presence to the new environment set up by the transition process. He expressed the decision of France to end its combat missions in 2013, while maintaining military trainers beyond 2014 and by substantially increasing its civil commitment, as framed by the Friendship and Cooperation Treaty signed by the French President and President Karzaï in Paris on 27 January.
On 22 March 2012, the Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 2041 renewing for one year the mandate of the UN assistance mission in Afghanistan, UNAMA.
On 17 May 2012, the Security Council met in private consultations to hear Mrs Valérie Amos, Under Secretary General for Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency relief coordinator, on the situation in Afghanistan.
The Representative of France noted the numerous humanitarian challenges the country had to face, in particular the hundreds of thousands of displaced people, the food crisis and the difficulties brought by violence in channeling assistance. Improvements in the transition process should not encourage the international community to reduce its efforts in this domain.
On 27 June 2012, the Security Council debated on the situation in Afghanistan with the Assistant Secretary General of NATO. It was noted that significant progress in terms of the security situation and regional cooperation, but the Afghan authorities still had to address the challenges of the protection of civilians, the fight against illicit trafficking and terrorism.
The Representative of France also recalled that, in accordance with the transition plan of its operational zones and in accordance with the framework decided by NATO at the Chicago summit, France would end its combat missions by the end of 2012 and would focus on training actions of the Afghan security forces. After 2014, the civil commitment of France would continue in accordance with the Friendship and Cooperation Treaty that was signed by the President of the Republic and President Karzaï on 27 January 2012 in Paris. UNAMA will play an ever more crucial role as the international community effort in Afghanistan evolves towards civilian support.
On 7 August 2012, the Security Council held private consultations on the situation in Central Asia. The Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General and Head of the UN Regional Centre for Preventive Diplomacy for Central Asia (UNRCCA) Ambassador Miroslav Jenča reported on the last developments in the region. He stressed the new challenges the Centre will face in light of the undergoing transition process in Afghanistan set to be completed in 2014.
The Security Council adopted a press statement commending the efforts of the UNRCCA in supporting to the regional cooperation between Central Asian countries.
On 20 September 2012, the Security Council held consultations after a briefing by the Special Representative and Head of the United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA), Jan Kubiš and by the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, Dr. Zalmai Rassoul. Both welcomed the absence of a significant deterioration of public order in Afghan controlled parts of the country, the security transition being on track.
On 9 October 2012, the Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 2069 renewing for one year the authorization given to ISAF (International Security Assistance Force) of the use of force in Afghanistan.
On 26 November 2012, the Security Council held an informal session to hear the briefing made by Mr. Salahuddin Rabbani, Chairman of the High Peace Council, on the political situation in Afghanistan.
The Representative of France reiterated his support to the inter-Afghan reconciliation process, objective promoted by Security Council resolution 1988, and which established a system of flexible sanctions and adapted to the Taliban. The peace and stabilization process should be implemented as directed by the High Peace Council roadmap, whose presidential and parliamentary elections of 2014 and 2015 would be a first test.
On 19 December 2012 , the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Afghanistan Mr. Ján Kubis reported on the activities of UNAMA to the Security Council. A year before the April 2014 presidential elections, many challenges remain, particularly regarding the violations of women’s rights or the increase exports of Afghan cannabis and opium.
In his speech, the French Representative reaffirmed his support for the transition process under way, recalling that France will remain engaged in the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) to the end of its mandate, in a role of supporting and training Afghan security forces.
On 19 March 2013, the Security Council held a public debate following the report of Secretary-General BAN Ki-moon on the situation in Afghanistan, as well as on UNAMA activities there.
With the presidential and legislative elections looming in 2014 and 2015, Afghanistan was at a turning point of its transition. Mr BAN called upon the Council to continue to provide good offices in the country, especially during this important period.
As a follow-up, the Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 2096 renewing UNAMA’s mandate for 12 months.
In his statement, the French Representative reaffirmed the support of France to Afghanistan in the transition period from war to peace, highlighting the ratification of the friendship and cooperation treaty by both countries.
Drug, nevertheless, remained a priority challenge for the country which UNAMA had to consider in its actions on the future of Afghanistan.
On 4 April 2013, the Security Council adopted a press statement, condemning the terrorist attack in Farah Province of Afghanistan the day before.
On 11 June 2013, the Security Council adopted a press statement, condemning the terrorist attack near the Supreme Court building in Kabul.
On 20 June 2013, the Security Council heard Mr. Jan Kubis, Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Afghanistan and Head of UNAMA, on the recent political, economic and security developments of the Afghan transition.
The members of the Security Council expressed their unanimous support to the Afghan authorities and stressed that the reinforcement of UNAMA technical capacities and appropriation of the transition process and governance by the Afghans themselves were essential to build a cohesive and sustainable peace in the region.
The representative of France expressed its concerns following a regain in violence increasing the number of civilian casualties, and called for an inclusive inter-Afghan political process and transparent, credible and inclusive elections, scheduled for 2014.
On 15 July 2013, the Security Council heard in closed consultations Mr. Miroslav Jenca, Special Representative of the Secretary-General and Head of the UN Regional Centre for Preventive Diplomacy in Central Asia, on the recent developments in this region and the work of the Centre. Mr. Jenca highlighted the growing concern of the countries in the region about the upcoming end of the Afghan transition.
The members of the Security Council welcomed the positive role played by the Centre in terms of preventive diplomacy and the development of a framework for a better regional cooperation in the management of water resources. The Security Council also adopted a press statement.
On 5 August 2013, the Security Council adopted a press statement condemning the suicide attack on 3 August near the Indian consulate in Jalalabad, Afghanistan.
On 13 September 2013, the Security Council adopted a press statement condemning the attack on the United States Consulate in Herat, for which the Taliban have claimed responsibility.
On 10 October 2013, the UN Security Council adopted resolution 2120 extending the authorization given to ISAF until 31 December 2014.
On 4 December 2013, the Security Council adopted a press statement condemning the attacks in Afghanistan’s Uruzgan Province on 26 November and Faryab Province on 27 November, which resulted in the death of nine development workers and brought the number of attacks against humanitarian personnel, facilities and assets in Afghanistan to 237 so far this year.
On 17 December 2013, the Security Council heard M. Jan Kubiš, Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Afghanistan and Head of the United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA), on the recent political, economic and security developments of the Afghan transition. A political solution, based on transparent and inclusive elections with full participation of women, and regional cooperation were essential to guarantee peace, security and stability.
The representative of France recalled that Afghanistan was in the last stage of preparation of the 2014 presidential election. It success would depend on security. Every effort should be made to ensure that Afghan forces address this challenge. The humanitarian and human rights situation remained a matter of concern, the recrudescence of fighting having tragic consequences for the civilian population. Concerning women’s rights, delays of authorities in setting up the implementation report of the law for the Elimination of Violence against Women were a matter of concern. Finally, the fight against drugs was not only a security imperative, but also of public health and should be better taken into account at a political level. In this context, the United Nations will be asked to assume increased responsibility in Afghanistan. UNAMA’s political and promotion of human rights role should definitely be reinforced.
On 17 January 2014, the Security Council adopted a press statement condemning in the strongest terms the terrorist attack at a restaurant in Kabul, Afghanistan, which caused a number of deaths and injuries to Afghan civilians and international personnel, including United Nations staff, responsibility for which has been claimed by the Taliban.
On 17 March 2014, a few days after the release of the Secretary-General’s report on the situation in Afghanistan, the members of the Security Council held a meeting around M. Kubiš, Special Representative of the Secretary-General and head of the United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA), as well as around Mr. Tanin, Permanent Representative of Afghanistan.
Mr. Kubiš and Mr. Tanin recalled that the 5 April presidential and provincial elections were crucial. It was fundamental that they take place in a credible, legitimate and transparent manner. The country also had to focus on cooperation with the international community, regional cooperation, as well as development. The protection of human rights, in particular of women and young girls, was also essential.
All members of the Security Council insisted on the fact that this final year of transition was fundamental. The elections were a historic event, with the first democratic transfer from a President to another in Afghanistan. The Council members also condemned the latest terrorist attacks against United Nations personnel and civilians.
They finally agreed on UNAMA’s role in stabilizing and peacebuilding the country and unanimously adopted resolution 2145 renewing for one year UNAMA’s mandate.
On 25 June 2014, the Security Council held a public debate on the situation in Afghanistan. The head of UNAMA (United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan) commended the holding of presidential elections which reinforced the political transition in view of putting an end to the cycle of violence in Afghanistan. He reminded the commitment of the UN in offering a technical expertise to the Afghan administration. He called for peace and collaboration between all parties.
The Executive Director of UNODC (United Nations Office against Drug and Crime) called for international support to fight illicit commerce in Afghanistan (opium, heroine). He supported regional and inter-regional cooperation with Afghanistan in the fight against drug trafficking.
The Permanent Representative of Afghanistan expressed his gratitude for the international support for the holding of the elections. He reminded the Afghan government’s commitment to political transition. The Permanent Representative of France commended the massive participation of Afghans to the presidential elections. He called on both candidates to respect electoral rules. He encouraged the commitment of the international community, especially Afghanistan’s regional partners, to tackle the challenges the country was facing such as the fight against drug trafficking.
At the end of this debate, two presidential elections were adopted, on the commitment of all actors to the Afghan political transition and for the stabilization of the country.