"The review of the Peacebuilding Commission should enable us to reinforce it and give the UN a truly effective tool to prevent countries from relapsing into conflict." Gerard Araud, Permanent Representative of France, at the Security Council on 16 April 2010.
On 20 December 2012, the Secretary-General Mr. BAN Ki-moon presented his report on post-conflict peace building to the Security Council.
Even though the United Nations had made progresses in supporting countries in transition, 90% of the conflicts recorded between 2000 and 2009 still occurred in countries which had already suffered a civil war. Progresses had to be done in the fields of governance and economic recovering.
The Chair of the Peacebuilding Commission, Mr. Abdulkalam Abdul Momem, welcomed the strengthening of its partnership with the World Bank and regional organizations by the UN, which was the key of its progresses.
In his statement, the French Representative stressed the importance for the peace consolidation to be operated in an inclusive manner, involving national governments as well as members of the opposition. The involvement of women in the peace consolidation had to be enhanced.
On 12 July 2012, the Security Council held an open debate on the theme "Post conflict peacebuilding: report of the Peacebuilding Commission", chaired by the Minister for Foreign Affairs of Colombia, María Ángela Holguín Cuéllar.
The French Representative recalled three major objectives of the PBC: the identification of country-specific needs in cooperation with the State, a durable political accompaniment in order to ensure sustainable International Community support and the coordination of various actors in the field, on a long term basis, in order to ensure the autonomy of the State.
On 26 March 2012, the Security Council heard Mr. Hervé Ladsous, Under Secretary General for Peacekeeping operations and Ms. Susana Malcorra, Under Secretary General for Field Support, on the issue of peace building. The achievement objectives of the peacebuilding missions requested that the national priorities and specificities be taken into account. To initiate a transition process in the host country, the United Nations missions had to implement partnerships that would bring together all sources of authority as well as the relevant regional organizations. The responsibility of each stakeholder had to be specified within the mandate of each mission. Mr. Ladsous emphasized the need to plan mission departure strategies in advance to allow these phases to reach completion as smoothly as possible.
In private consultations, the representative of France stressed that while ownership was a crucial element, the existence of appropriate political and administrative structures within the host country was necessary. Coordination between stakeholders had to be driven on the field to support concrete action.
On 31 October 2011, the Security Council held a public debate on Post-conflict peacebuilding in the presence of Ms. Judy Cheng-Hopkins, Assistant Secretary-General for Peacebuilding Support and Ms. Sylvie Lucas, Chairperson of the peacebuilding configuration for Guinea and Permanent Representative of Luxembourg.
In his statement, the representative of France recalled that lasting peace requires sizable reforms through three key elements which are national ownership, good coordination among the stakeholders and anticipated transition planning.
On 12 May 2011, the Security Council held a public debate to listen to a presentation of the report on "Civilian Capacity in the Aftermath of Conflict", by Mr Jean-Marie Guehenno, chairman of the Senior Advisory Group which was tasked by the Secretary-General to produce the report. The General Assembly also examined the report on 11 May.
On 21 January 2011, the Security Council held a public debate on the theme " Post-conflict peacebuilding: Institution-building" following which a Presidential Statement was adopted. (See the statement of France).
An open debate of the Security Council on "post-conflict peacebuilding" was held on 16 April 2010 under the presidency of Mr. Katsuya Okada, Japanese Minister of Foreign Affairs, and attended by the Secretary General of the United Nations and ministers of Afghanistan, East Timor, Sierra Leone and Bosnia-Herzegovina (member of the Council). Nearly fifty delegations took the floor. The representative of France reiterated the importance of the Peacebuilding Commission, while noting that its results needed to be improved. He stressed the linkage between peacekeeping and peacebuilding: "peacebuilding must be clearly understood as an aspect of peacekeeping, not only as its following sequence," hence it was necessary to "integrate the peacebuilding dimension at the launch of a PKO". A presidential statement (S/PRST/2010/7) was adopted after debate.
Work on the review of the Peacebuilding Commission started in the General Assembly on 17 February 2010 in the presence of Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon and President of the General Assembly Ali Treki. The Peacebuilding Commission is to be reviewed in 2010, pursuant to resolutions S/RES/1645 (2005) of the Security Council and 60/180 de l’Assemblée générale of the General Assembly adopted on 20 and 30 December 2005.
France spoke as President of the Security Council, stressing that the review will enable all States to express their views and make proposals and that the review should concern "the strategic role of the Commission, its methods of work in New York and in the field, including ways to better implement its role as coordinator of all parties".
France, in a national capacity, stressed that the 2010 review was an essential step for the PBC and emphasized the need to examine in depth the role of the PBC as well as the practical ways to better perform. The review of the PBC should strengthen its coordination and consistency as well as the capacity of analysis of the PBC.
Post-conflict peacebuilding and stabilization are key concerns for the international community and the United Nations. During the critical stage when nations are emerging from crisis the international community must support the still fragile national institutions, allowing them to respond to the basic needs of the population.
The Peacebuilding Commission (PBC)
At the 2005 Millennium Summit, which prompted the need for a coordinated, consistent and integrated approach, the decision was taken to establish an institutional mechanism to respond to these particular needs. Through their respective identical resolutions 1645 (2005) and 60/180, the Security Council and the General Assembly created an intergovernmental advisory body known as the Peacebuilding Commission (PBC) to put the decision taken at the World Summit into effect.
The last paragraph of these two resolutions provides for a review of the PBC in 2010 (five years after the adoption of the resolutions).
The PBC supports the recovery, reintegration and reconstruction efforts of the countries emerging from conflict and helps them to lay the foundations for sustainable development.
The main functions of the Commission are:
To bring together all parties concerned to mobilize resources, to put forward integrated strategies for post-conflict peacebuilding and recovery and to give advice on the subject;
To focus attention on the efforts to rebuild and strengthen the institutions that are necessary for post-conflict recovery and support the development of strategies that are integrated into the United Nations’ system in order to lay the foundations for sustainable development ;
To make recommendations and give information in order to improve coordination between all parties concerned within and outside the United Nations system, define best practices, help to obtain stable funding for the initial recovery activities and prolong the period of international mobilization in order to support post-conflict recovery operations.
The PBC is a first attempt at ensuring consistency in the international community’s post-conflict activities by integrating the various dimensions: political, security-related, humanitarian and development-related. To that effect, some of the critical challenges the PBC faces include the security sector reform, the promotion of the rule of law, the protection of human rights, the establishment of an efficient and independent legal system and the development of good governance.
To date, there are five countries on the PBC’s agenda: Burundi and Sierra Leone since June 2006, Guinea Bissau since December 2007, the Central African Republic since June 2008 and Liberia since September 2010 at the country’s request.
The Commission’s Organizational Committee is made up of 31 members, including the 5 permanent members of the Security Council. The World Bank, the IMF, the European Commission and the Organization of the Islamic Conference also take part in all of the meetings held by the PBC.
In addition to the members of the organizational committee, for each country-specific configuration, the following are also included:
- The countries of the region or those that take part in post-conflict activities
- The relevant regional and subregional organizations and regional and international financial institutions (ADB, ECOWAS, AU, OIF, CAEMC, UNODC, UNDP, etc.)
-The senior UN representative in the field.
Position of the European Union and France
The European commission is actively involved in all the countries on the PBC’s agenda and is one of the PBC’s main donors, if not the largest, in terms of budgetary, humanitarian and development aid. It also participates in the development of peacebuilding strategies. Moreover, the European Union supports the implementation of the political and security components of these strategies, including through the use of the European Security and Defense Policy (ESDP) instruments as is the case with the support and assistance mission for Security Sector Reform in Guinea Bissau.
France believes that the PBC’s visibility as well as its capacity to train and influence should be increased. The PBC’s work should be integrated into the Security Council’s strategies as far in advance as possible and in the same way, the Commission must guide the development stakeholders towards aligning their actions with a political stability and long-term security strategy in order to increase UN coherence as a whole.
The Peacebuilding fund was established by the Secretary General at the request of the General Assembly in October 2006. It aims to provide financial assistance to some states that have just emerged from conflict to prevent a recurrence of hostilities. In this context, the fund supports activities that fall within the following areas:
- Implementation of peace agreements; - Support to the country’s efforts to rebuild and strengthen peace; - Establishment of essential administrative services; - Action to respond to immediate threats against peacebuilding.
At the end of February 2010, the Fund budget amounted to $334 million, beyond its initial target of $250 million (details on pledges are found on the Peacebuilding Fund website). France contributed $2.9 million. Thanks to the participation of twenty member states, the EU is the largest contributor with 4/5th of the total budget. The largest donors are Sweden, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands.
There are two types of financing: a small proportion of the budget is devoted to rapid emergency funding, and the larger part of the funding is for peacebuilding in the long term. The UNDP’s multi-donor fund is responsible for managing funds: once the Peacebuilding Support Office Bureau (PBSO) has made its decision, the fund disburses the amount allocated to each country.
Fund recipients are not necessarily States that are on the agenda of the CCP (Burundi, Sierra Leone, Guinea Bissau, Central African Republic, Liberia). As of February 28, 2010, ten states benefited from the Fund: Burundi ($ 35 million), Sierra Leone ($ 35 million), Central African Republic ($ 30 million), Democratic Republic of Congo ($ 20 million), Liberia ($ 15 million), Nepal ($ 10 million), Comoros (9 million), Guinea-Bissau ($ 6 million), Guinea ($ 6 million), Côte d’Ivoire (5 million). These countries have also received emergency funding, as well as Haiti, Kenya and East Timor. Funded projects generally promote good governance, effective security and court systems.
Each year the Secretary General of the UN must submit a report on the operation and activities of the fund.
Report of the Secretary General on Peacebuilding in the immediate aftermath of conflict
The United Kingdom organized a ministerial debate at the Security Council on 20 May 2008 under the presidency of Minister David Miliband to encourage an in-depth review of early post-conflict issues and the improvements to be made in terms of leadership, immediate funding and rapid response capacity. The presidential statement adopted by the council on this occasion (S/PRST/2008/16) requested the Secretary-General to submit an advisory report on these issues to the council within a year.
It focuses on the challenges that post-conflict countries and the international community face in the immediate aftermath of conflict, defined as the first two years after the main conflict in a country has ended.
It underscores the imperative of national ownership and highlights the unique challenges arising from the specific context of early post-conflict situations
It describes efforts undertaken to date by the United Nations to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of its post-conflict response, and identifies systemic challenges which prevent the Organization from making deeper reforms.
It sets out an agenda to strengthen the United Nations response in the immediate aftermath of conflict as well as to facilitate an earlier, more coherent response from the wider international community.
The core elements of this agenda include:
a) stronger, more effective and better supported United Nations leadership teams on the ground;
b) early agreement on priorities and alignment of resourcesbehind them;
c) strengthening United Nations support for national ownership and capacity development from the outset;
d) rationalizing and enhancing the United Nations system’s capacity to provide knowledge, expertise and deployable personnel to meet the most urgent peacebuilding needs;
e) working with Member States, particularly donors, to enhance the speed, alignment, flexibility and risk tolerance of funding mechanisms.
Finally it considers the critical role of the Peacebuilding Commission in supporting post-conflict countries and proposes several suggestions for consideration by Member States as to how the Commission could strengthen its advisory role in relation to the early post-conflict period that is addressed in the report.
Review of peacekeeping operations
United Nations peacekeeping operations are becoming increasingly frequent and complex and are being carried out in more and more difficult situations.
With this in mind, the United Nations has initiated an in-depth review of peacekeeping operations, focusing in particular on an integrated approach (bringing together security, development and humanitarian actors) and improvement of exit and management strategies during the post-conflict stages. The issue of peacebuilding is therefore an integral part of the reflection.
A series of meetings haven taken place at the Security Council since 2009 to discuss these matters.
See our file on Peacekeeping operations.
25 April 2013 – Security Council - Post-conflict peacebuilding – Statement by Mr Martin Briens, Deputy Permanent Representative of France to the United Nations
20 December 2012 – Security Council – Post-conflict peacebuilding – Statement by Mr. Martin Briens, Deputy Permanent Representative of France to the United Nations
12 July 2012 - Security Council - Peacebuilding - Statement by Mr Gérard Araud, Permanent Representative of France to the United Nations
31 October 2011 - Security Council - Post-conflict peacebuilding - Statement by Mr Martin Briens, Deputy Permanent Representative of France to the United Nations
21 January 2011 - Security Council - Institution-building - Statement by Mr. Gerard Araud, Permanent Representative of France to the United Nations
13 October 2010 - Security Council - Post-conflict peacebuilding - Statement by Mr. Gérard Araud, Permanent Representative of France to the United Nations
16 April 2010 – Security Council : Post-conflict peacebuilding - Statement by Mr. Gérard Araud, Permanent Representative of France to the United Nations
25 November 2009 - Security Council: Peacebuilding - Statement by Mr. Nicolas de Rivière, Deputy Permanent Representative of France to the United Nations
22 July 2009 - Security Council: peacebuilding in the immediate aftermath of conflict - Statement by Mr. Jean-Pierre Lacroix, Permanent Representative of France to the United Nations
20 May 2008 : Security Council debate - Statement by Ms. Rama Yade, Minister of State for Foreign Affairs and Human Rights
17 October 2007 : Security Council debate - Statement by H.E. Mr. Jean-Maurice Ripert, Permanent Representative of France to the United Nations
31 January 2007 : Security Council debate - Statement by Mr. Jean-Pierre Lacroix, Deputy Permanent Representative of France at the United Nations
21 July 2010 - Report A/64/868 - S/2010/393 - Review of the United Nations peacebuilding architecture
16 July 2010 - Report A/64/866-S/2010/386 - Report of the Secretary-General on peacebuilding in the immediate aftermath of conflict
8 September 2009 - Report A/64/341 - S/2009/444 of the PBC on its third session
11 June 2009 - Report A/63/881–S/2009/304 of the Secretary-General on peacebuilding in the immediate aftermath of conflict
24 June 2008 - Report A/63/92 - S/2008/417 of the PBC on its second session
25 July 2007 - Report A/62/137 - S/2007/458 of the PBC on its first session
20 December 2005 - General Assembly Resolution A/RES/60/180 - Establishing the Peacebuilding Commission
20 December 2005 - Resolution 1646 (2005) - Members of the Organizational Committee of the Peacebuilding Commission
20 December 2005 - Resolution 1645 (2005) - Establishing the Peacebuilding Commission